President Biden mentioned final week that he was “looking at a whole number of options” to make good on his 2021 warning to Vladimir Putin that Russia would face “devastating” penalties if Aleksei Navalny have been to die in jail. Now that Putin has handled that warning together with his customary contempt, Biden must act as a matter of ethical readability and private credibility, and for the strategic crucial of demonstrating to a dictator that American threats aren’t hole.

However how? Some analysts recommend that the administration, which on Tuesday vowed to impose harder sanctions, will wrestle to seek out methods to make them simpler, and that the most effective single coverage to harm Putin is to proceed supporting Ukraine militarily. They’re proper concerning the second level. As a number of shut Russia watchers informed me, nevertheless, there’s rather more to be achieved concerning the first.

There are 4 broad approaches.

Funds: “The one most essential factor we are able to do to hit again at Putin is to enact laws to confiscate the $300 billion of frozen Russian bank reserves for the protection and reconstruction of Ukraine,” Invoice Browder, investor and political activist, wrote me on Monday. Browder is greatest often known as the shifting power behind the Magnitsky Acts, which put sanctions on Russian officers implicated in corruption and different abuses.

Browder’s suggestion isn’t new. And it’s been resisted by U.S. authorities officers who worry that it exceeds what American regulation permits and would encourage a flight from greenback belongings. However because the Harvard authorized scholar Larry Tribe and a staff of consultants from the agency of Kaplan, Heckler & Fink famous final yr in a report for the Renew Democracy Initiative, seizing Russia’s belongings is explicitly allowed as a “countermeasure,” an act designed to compel an aggressor to return into compliance with worldwide regulation. As for the flight-from-the-dollar argument, it’d in any other case be persuasive if the necessity to save Ukraine and punish Russia weren’t extra pressing.

Seizing Russia’s belongings “could be like two fingers within the eyes from the West,” Browder added. “Putin doesn’t care what number of troopers are killed, however he cares profoundly about his cash. To prime it off, all nations ought to name this new laws the Navalny Act.”

Recognition: “Don’t acknowledge Putin because the president of Russia after March 17 — that easy,” Garry Kasparov, the legendary chess and human-rights champion, informed me by telephone from Berlin. “Don’t acknowledge the regime as respectable.”

Kasparov was alluding to subsequent month’s sham presidential election, through which Putin is operating for a fifth time period. However he’s additionally nodding to a deeper level, which is that whereas Putin may be detached to questions of legality, he craves and is keenly attuned to the trimmings of political legitimacy, notably internationally, which bolster his claims to rule.

It’s some extent that was underscored to me by the economist Konstantin Sonin, a professor on the College of Chicago who this month was arrested in absentia by a Russian courtroom. “Putin and his henchmen must be acknowledged and handled as a gang whose maintain on energy in Russia is predicated on brute power slightly than any sort of legitimacy,” Sonin mentioned. “It doesn’t make sense to barter with Putin as any sort of settlement must be renegotiated when his regime falls.”

Dissidents: When Natan Sharansky known as me from Jerusalem, that nice Soviet refusenik, who exchanged letters with Navalny last year, turned nearly instantly to Vladimir Kara-Murza, one other imprisoned dissident. Like Navalny, Kara-Murza, 42, additionally survived poisonings and comas. Like Navalny, he’s being held in a “strict regime” penal colony on a 25-year-sentence for his opposition to Putin.

“If there are not any modifications” to Western coverage, Sharansky mentioned, Putin “might kill Kara-Murza tomorrow. The West wants to grasp that these dissidents are the true mates of the free world, they usually need to be seen as candidates for prisoner exchanges.” Sharansky was notably crucial of the 2022 trade of a Russian archfiend, Viktor Bout, for the basketball star Brittney Griner, which absolutely enticed the Kremlin to arrest Evan Gershkovich, the Wall Road Journal reporter, final March. “America confirmed they’re a nasty bargainer,” Sharansky lamented.

Sharansky is seconded by Reuel Marc Gerecht, a former C.I.A. case officer and senior fellow on the Basis for Protection of Democracies. “The good Soviet dissidents taught us that they have been fortified by Western consideration to their plight,” Gerecht informed me. “As we speak, we don’t know what Russian dissident, what Russian on the cusp of going ‘rogue,’ would possibly provoke Russians who detest the regime.”

Energy: One among my sources for this column requested to not be named due to the sensitivity of his present place, however he’s a long-admired skilled on vitality markets. “America’s liquefied pure fuel is now a part of NATO’s arsenal towards Russia,” he informed me. Biden, he suggested, might “restore U.S. credibility as an L.N.G. exporter by lifting the administration’s ‘pause’ on new L.N.G. permits and thereby give Europe and Japan confidence to cease importing Russian L.N.G.”

Whereas Russia’s oil and fuel revenues have fallen steeply because the Ukraine struggle started, they nonetheless got here to shut to $100 billion final yr — sufficient to finance the Kremlin’s struggle machine. What else might damage? David Petraeus, the retired basic and former C.I.A. director, had a particular suggestion: “The White Home ought to announce the availability of the Military Tactical Missile System to Ukraine, which might double the vary to roughly 300 kilometers of the missiles supplied by the U.S. so far.”

Together with everybody I spoke with, Petraeus acknowledged that these missiles may very well be supplied provided that the $60 billion in army assist to Ukraine that the Senate accepted final week can overcome a wall of Republican opposition within the Home. Each Republican with a reminiscence of what their celebration as soon as stood for has an obligation to vote for that invoice, simply as Biden has an obligation to make sure that evil won’t go unpunished, and that Navalny didn’t die for nothing.

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